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Hypertension

What is it?


Hypertension or high blood pressure, is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is higher than it should be. This requires the heart to work harder than normal to circulate blood through the blood vessels.

TYPES:

  • Primary/ Essential Hypertension:Chronic high blood pressure without a source or associated with any other disease. Most common form of hypertension.
  • Secondary Hypertension:Elevation of blood pressure associated with another disease such as kidney disease

How is it Caused


ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION

No Known Cause

Associated risk factors such as:

  • Family history
  • High sodium intake
  • Excessive calorie intake
  • Physical inactivity
  • Excessive alcohol intake
  • Low potassium intake

SECONDARY HYPERTENSION

  • Renal vascular diseases
  • Coarctation of the aorta
  • Pregnancy
  • Medications
  • Cushing diseases
  • Brain tumors
  • Encephalitis
  • Psychiatric disorders

How can I Identify?


  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Blurred vision
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Weakness

How can it be diagnosed?


Regular blood pressure checks

Blood pressure measurements fall into four general categories:

NORMAL

SYSTOLIC

DIASTOLIC

< 120mmhg

< 80mmhg

PRE-HYPERTENSIVE

SYSTOLIC

DIASTOLIC

120-139mmhg

80-89mmhg

STAGE 1

HYPERTENSION

SYSTOLIC

DIASTOLIC

140-159mmhg

90-99mmhg

STAGE 2

HYPERTENSION

SYSTOLIC

DIASTOLIC

>160mmhg

>100mmhg

Your doctor may also recommend routine tests, such as a urine test (urinalysis), blood tests, a cholesterol test and an electrocardiogram 

What is the treatment?


Lifestyle changes

  • Lose weight if they are overweight or obese
  • Exercise regularly
  • Decrease the amount of salt they eat
  • Limit the amount of alcohol they drink
  • Eat a lot of fruits and vegetables

Medicine

Doctor will choose which medications to use, based on what other medical problems the person has. Examples of medications that decrease blood pressure include:

  • Diuretics, which increase urination to get rid of extra fluid
  • Beta blockers, which slow down the heart rate
  • ACE inhibitors, which relax the arteries

What are it’s complication?


  • Thickening of the heart muscle
  •  Increased workload of the heart.
  • May lead to other conditions such as: Loss of vision, Renal (Kidney) Failure, Stroke , Heart attack

Can I prevent it?


  • Engaging in community health awareness activities
  • Understanding your personal risk factors
  • Being aware of your blood pressure and where it should be
  • Education
  • Having regular checkups with your physician
  • Lifestyle changes