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Diabetes Mellitus

What is it?


Diabetes mellitus (or diabetes) is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body's ability to use the energy found in food. There are three major diabetes: type, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes, because it often begins in childhood.

Type 2 Diabetes

By far, the most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes, or non insulin dependent accounting for 95% of diabetes cases in adults.

Gestational Diabetes

Diabetes that's triggered by pregnancy is called gestational diabetes It is often diagnosed in middle or late pregnancy. Because high blood sugar levels in a mother are circulated through the placenta to the baby, gestational diabetes must be controlled to protect the baby's growth and development.

How is it Caused


Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.

Risk factors

  • Family history
  • Diseases of the pancreas
  • Infection or illness. Some infections and illnesses, mostly rare ones, can damage your pancreas.
  • Obesity or being overweight
  • Impaired glucose tolerance
  • Ethnic background. Diabetes happens more often in Hispanic/Latino Americans, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian-Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Alaska natives.
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Gestational diabetes. If you had diabetes while you were pregnant, you had gestational diabetes. This raises your chances of getting type 2 diabetes later in life

How can I Identify?


The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are:

  • polyuria (increased urination),
  • polydipsia (increased thirst),
  • polyphagia (increased hunger).
  • fatigue
  • blurred vision
  • numbness or tingling in the feet or hands
  • sores that do not heal
  • unexplained weight loss

How can it be diagnosed?


Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent high blood sugar, and is diagnosed by demonstrating any one of the following

  • Fasting plasma glucose (FPG)
    • < 110 mg/dl = normal fasting glucose
    • >110 mg/dl- <126 mg/dl =impaired fasting glucose
    • >126 mg/dl =provisional diagnosis of diabetes
  • Oral glucosetolerancetest(OGTT)
    • < 2-h PG 40 mg/dl= normal glucose tolerance > 140 mg/dl and
    • < 2-h PG 200 mg/dl= impaired glucose tolerance
    • 200 mg/dl = DIABETES

What is the treatment?


Management concentrates on keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal, without causing low blood sugar. This can usually be accomplished with a healthy diet, exercise, weight loss, and use of appropriate medications (insulin in the case of type 1 diabetes; oral medications, as well as possibly insulin, in type 2 diabetes)

What are it’s complication?


High blood sugar levels can cause damage to various parts of the body. If diabetes isn’t managed properly, it increases the risk of the following complications:

  • increased heart attack risk
  • eye problems, including blindness
  • diabetic nerve pain
  • infections on the skin, especially the feet, that could require amputation in serious cases
  • kidney damage
  • high blood pressure
  • high cholesterol

Can I prevent it?


There is no known preventive measure for type 1 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes – which accounts for 85-90% of all cases – can often be prevented or delayed by maintaining a normal body weight, engaging in physical activity, and consuming a healthful diet.

  • Higher levels of physical activity (more than 90 minutes per day) reduce the risk of diabetes by 28%
  • Dietary changes known to be effective in helping to prevent diabetes include maintaining a diet rich in whole grains and fiber, and choosing good fats, such as the polyunsaturated fats found in nuts, vegetable oils, and fish. Limiting sugary beverages and eating less red meat and other sources of saturated fat can also help prevent diabetes.
  • Tobacco smoking is also associated with an increased risk of diabetes and its complications, so smoking cessation can be an important preventive measure as well

B.E.A.T Diabetes


  • Be physically active
  • Eat a healthy diet
  • ABCs (know and control) a1c, blood pressure, cholesterol, and smoking
  • Take your medication